Fondée en même temps que la ville de Kairouan par les conquérants (ghuzât) musulmans, en l’an 50 de l’Hégire (670 ap. Mahmoud Bouali, « Il y a près de trois siècles, un tourisme éminemment éclairé Â», Courte biographie sur Thomas Shaw (Société des anglicistes de l’enseignement supérieur), Kairouan n’était pas une ville interdite (Capitale de la culture islamique 2009), The influence of Kairouan on art and literature (Capital of Islamic culture 2009), Fragment de bois à décor d’arcatures d’époque hafside (Qantara), Coupole du Bahou de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Cour et minaret de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Minaret de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan (Qantara). Aujourd’hui, le minbar est intégré au mur de la qibla lors de la construction. ÐÏࡱá > þÿ þÿÿÿ Extensive works under the Aghlabids two centuries later (9th Cent.AD/CE) gave the mosque its present aspect. [13][14], At the foundation of Kairouan in 670, the Arab general and conqueror Uqba ibn Nafi (himself the founder of the city) chose the site of his mosque in the center of the city, near the headquarters of the governor. Coupole et plafonds de la grande mosquée de Kairouan. According to the German archaeologist Christian Ewert, the special arrangement of reused columns and capitals surrounding the mihrab obeys to a well-defined program and would draw symbolically the plan of the Dome of the Rock. [12], During the thirteenth century, new gates were opened, the most remarkable, Bab Lalla Rihana dated from 1293, is located on the eastern wall of the enclosure. [16] With the gradual increase of the population of Kairouan and the consequent increase in the number of faithful, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, Umayyad Caliph in Damascus, charged his governor Bishr ibn Safwan to carry out development work in the city, which included the renovation and expansion of the mosque around the years 724–728. The building is a vast slightly irregular quadrilateral covering some 9,000 m2. [84] This old chair of the ninth century is still in its original location, next to the mihrab. Several centuries after its founding, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the subject of numerous descriptions by Arab historians and geographers in the Middle Ages. Considered as the oldest example of concave mihrab, it dates in its present state to 862–863 AD.[79]. [40][41] It is surrounded on all its four sides by a portico with double rows of arches, opened by slightly horseshoe arches supported by columns in various marbles, in granite or in porphyry, reused from Roman, Early Christian or Byzantine monuments particularly from Carthage. À peine sortis du louage, le taxi collectif de la Tunisie, nous avons pu admirer la muraille de la médina. The latest, dated the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (mostly dating from the time of the Muradid Beys), are distinguished by an epigraphic decoration consists of long black and red texts on olive green background to those painted from 1618 to 1619, under the reign of Murad I Bey (1613–1631), while those back to the eighteenth century have inscriptions in white naskhi script on an orange background. The combination formed by the courtyard and the galleries that surround it covers an immense area whose dimensions are about 90 metres long and 72 metres in width. The Mosque of Uqba, one of the few religious buildings of Islam has remained intact almost all of its architectural and decorative elements, is due to the richness of its repertoire which is a veritable museum of Islamic decorative art and architecture. This dome, whose construction goes back to the first half of the ninth century (towards 836), is one of the oldest and most remarkable domes in the western Islamic world. The oldest boards date back to the Aghlabid period (ninth century) and are decorated with scrolls and rosettes on a red background consists of squares with concave sides in which are inscribed four-petaled flowers in green and blue, and those performed by the Zirid dynasty (eleventh century) are characterised by inscriptions in black kufic writing with gold rim and the uprights of the letters end with lobed florets, all on a brown background adorned with simple floral patterns. La présence d’une importante communauté juive à Kairouan confirme cette tolérance, et le statut de Kairouan. Behind the openwork hint, there is an oldest niche on which several assumptions were formulated. Kairouan est fondée par Okba Ibn Nafaâ en 670, malgré l'hostilité des populations berbères, qui se révoltèrent sous la conduite de la prophétesse Al Kahéna. [46] Freed from its impurities, the water flows into an underground cistern supported by seven-metre-high pillars. Date: 23 February 2012, 09:27:09: Source: Flickr: marble arch: Author: James Rose: Although it has existed for more than eleven centuries, all panels, with the exception of nine, are originals and are in a good state of conservation, the fineness of the execution of the minbar makes it a great masterpiece of Islamic wood carving referring to Paul Sebag. Search for Library Items Search for Lists Search for Contacts Search for a Library. [12][37] However, Arab geographers and historians of the Middle Ages Al-Muqaddasi and Al-Bakri reported the existence, around the tenth and eleventh centuries, of about ten gates named differently from today. Son plan copie celui de la maison de Mahomet à Médine.. Elle comprend différentes parties : En nous approchant davantage, un homme qui passe par là… nous propose de nous guider jusqu’à la mosquée. Dated from the ninth century (about 862) and erected under the reign of the sixth Aghlabid ruler Abul Ibrahim (856–863), it is made in teak wood imported from India. Located in the north-east of the medina of Kairouan, the mosque is in the intramural district of Houmat al-Jami (literally "area of the Great Mosque"). Dans la partie gauche du plan on trouve la salle de prière. [48] The minaret, in its present aspect, dates largely from the early ninth century, about 836 AD. Français : Façade de la salle de prière et cour de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan également appelée mosquée Oqba Ibn Nafi. A legend says they could not count them without going blind. [2] Its perimeter, of about 405 metres (1,329 ft), contains a hypostyle prayer hall, a marble-paved courtyard and a square minaret. [12] The corner towers measuring 4.25 metres on each side are buttressed with solid projecting supports. 1–38, History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes, Great Mosque of Kairouan (, Great Mosque of Kairouan – Kairouan, Tunisia, Kairouan – UNESCO World Heritage Centre, The Great Mosque ( WorldCat Home About WorldCat Help. »[22]. [60] The wooden rods, which usually sink to the base of the transom, connect the columns together and maintain the spacing of the arches, thus enhancing the stability of all structures which support the ceiling of the prayer hall.[74]. [80] Above the marble cladding, the mihrab niche is crowned with a half dome-shaped vault made of manchineel bentwood. The Great Mosque of Kairouan (Arabic: جامع القيروان الأكبر ‎), also known as the Mosque of Uqba (جامع عقبة بن نافع), is a mosque situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan, Tunisia and is one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa.. Jewel of the art of woodwork produced during the reign of the Zirid prince Al-Mu'izz ibn Badis and dated from the first half of the eleventh century, it is considered the oldest still in place in the Islamic world. In the courtyard there are also several water wells some of which are placed side by side. [77], The mihrab, which indicates the Qibla (direction of Mecca), in front of which stands the imam during the prayer, is located in the middle of the southern wall of the prayer hall. In the early twentieth century, the minbar had a painstaking restoration. " Coupole et plafonds de la grande mosquée de Kairouan " " Coupole et Plafonos de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan " " Coupole et plafonds de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan " He then made the mihrab. Oxford, 1977, Je laisse Lamaâ gérer ça pendant que je commence à filmer ! Among the Western travelers, poets and writers who visited Kairouan, some of them leave impressions and testimonies sometimes tinged with emotion or admiration on the mosque. In 1967, major restoration works, executed during five years and conducted under the direction of the National Institute of Archeology and Art, were achieved throughout the monument, and were ended with an official reopening of the mosque during the celebration of the Mawlid of 1972.[30]. The painted ceilings are a unique ensemble of planks, beams and brackets, illustrating almost thousand years of the history of painting on wood in Tunisia. Lucien Golvin, « Quelques réflexions sur la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan à la période des Aghlabides Â». [60] Some capitals were carved for the mosque, but others come from Roman or Byzantine buildings (dating from the second to sixth century) and were reused. [35] Early in the twentieth century, the Austrian poet Rainer Maria Rilke describes his admiration for the impressive minaret: « Is there a more beautiful than this still preserved old tower, the minaret, in Islamic architecture? [72] The shafts of the columns are carved in marble of different colors and different backgrounds. La grande mosquée de Kairouan se trouve à Kairouan, en Tunisie.Elle a été bâtie dans la seconde moitié du VIIe siècle par Obka ibn Nafi, le fondateur de la ville.Elle a été reconstruite au IX e siècle pendant la dynastie aghlabide.. [12] The monumental entrance, work of the Hafsid sovereign Abu Hafs `Umar ibn Yahya (reign from 1284 to 1295),[38] is entered in a salient square, flanked by ancient columns supporting horseshoe arches and covered by a dome on squinches. The courtyard is a vast trapezoidal area whose interior dimensions are approximately 67 by 52 metres. La mosquée, monument symbolisant l'extension territoriale de l'Islam. The covering of the prayer hall consists of painted ceilings decorated with vegetal motifs and two domes: one raised at the beginning of the central nave and the other in front of the mihrab. [58] From the outside, the dome of the mihrab is based on an octagonal drum with slightly concave sides, raised on a square base, decorated on each of its three southern, Easter and western faces with five flat-bottomed niches surmounted by five semi-circular arches,[24][58] the niche in the middle is cut by a lobed oculus enrolled in a circular frame. 1. [17] During this expansion, he pulled down the mosque and rebuilt it with the exception of the mihrab. Divided into two groups, they are dated from the beginning of the second half of the ninth century but it is not determined with certainty whether they were made in Baghdad or in Kairouan by a Baghdadi artisan, the controversy over the origin of this precious collection agitates the specialists. [22][23] At the same time, the mihrab's ribbed dome was raised on squinches. [12] The front façade of the porch has a large horseshoe arch relied on two marble columns and surmounted by a frieze adorned with a blind arcade, all crowned by serrated merlons (in a sawtooth arrangement). Imp… [25] In 875 Emir Ibrahim II built another three bays, thereby reducing the size of the courtyard which was further limited on the three other sides by the addition of double galleries. Those in white marble come from Italy,[60] some shafts located in the area of the mihrab are in red porphyry imported from Egypt,[73] while those made of greenish or pink marble are from quarries of Chemtou, in the north-west of current Tunisia. A portico with double row of arches precede the spacious prayer hall, which takes the shape of a rectangle of 70.6 metres in width and 37.5 metres' depth. Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin and Sharon La Boda, « Kairouan (Tunisia) Â», Présentation de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan (ArchNet), Plafonds de la salle de prière de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Mihrab of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara), Minbar of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara), "Maqsura of the Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara)", Circular chandelier (Discover Islamic Art), Nurdin Laugu, « The Roles of Mosque Libraries through History Â», Al-Jami‘ah, vol. [60], The hypostyle hall is divided into 17 aisles of eight bays, the central nave is wider, as well as the bay along the wall of the qibla. La Grandes Mosquée de Damas Construction et description Dans les régions du Proche - Orient et du Maghreb conquises après la mort de Mahomet, les Arabes occupent des villes anciennes ou fondent des villes nouvelles destinées aux garnisons de soldats. [85] Its main adornment is a frieze that crowns calligraphy, the latter surmounted by a line of pointed openwork merlons, features an inscription in flowery kufic character carved on the background of interlacing plants. The horseshoe arch of the mihrab, stilted and broken at the top, rest on two columns of red marble with yellow veins, which surmounted with Byzantine style capitals that carry two crossbeams carved with floral patterns, each one is decorated with a Kufic inscription in relief. Most of the works on which rests the reputation of the mosque are still conserved in situ while a certain number of them have joined the collections of the Raqqada National Museum of Islamic Art; Raqqada is located about ten kilometres southwest of Kairouan. [56] Despite its massive form and austere decoration, it nevertheless presents a harmonious structure and a majestic appearance. Le mur extérieur situé tout à gauche est le mur de la qiblâ qui indique la direction de La Mecque. page 33. Le long de ce mur, à l’intérieur de la salle de prière, sont indiqués deux éléments architecturaux fondamentaux dans une mosquée :- le mihrab, niche symbolisant la présence de Mahomet ;- le mimbar, endroit où est lu le From the library of the mosque comes a large collection of calligraphic scrolls and manuscripts, the oldest dating back to the second half of the ninth century. These polycandelons, now scattered in various Tunisian museums including Raqqada, consist of three chains supporting a perforated brass plate, which has a central circular ring around which radiate 18 equidistant poles connected by many horseshoe arches and equipped for each of two landmarks flared. V, 1969, pp. [58][76] The niches are covered with carved stone panels, finely adorned with characteristic geometric, vegetal and floral patterns of the Aghlabid decorative repertoire: shells, cusped arches, rosettes, vine-leaf, etc. La Grande Mosquée de Kairouan a été érigée en 670, ce qui correspond à l'an 50 de l'hégire, le calendrier musulman. Kairouan. C’est un monument situé à l’extérieur de la médina de Kairouan, il est idéalement placé à l’entrée de la ville de sorte qu’il attire forcément les regards. La mosquée est le lieu de culte des musulmans.L'appel du muezzin invite les fidèles à venir y prier cinq fois par jour.La prière collective se déroule sous la direction d'un religieux lettré, l' imam, choisi pour son niveau de connaissances religieuses, Le terme signifie « celui qui est devant, celui qui montre la voie ». The beginning of each surah is indicated by a band consisting of a golden stylised leafy foliage, dotted with red and blue, while the verses are separated by silver rosettes. Présentation a) La mosquée Nom : mosquée de Kairouan ou mosquée Oqba Ibn Nafi en souvenir de son fondateur. Fondée en 670, la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan est un des plus prestigieux sanctuaires musulmans au monde. It is the oldest minaret in the Muslim world,[53][54] and it is also the world's oldest minaret still standing. La grande mosquée de Kairouan. [62], The central nave, a sort of triumphal alley which leads to the mihrab,[63] is significantly higher and wider than the other sixteen aisles of the prayer hall. Mais ils furent contraints de céder et Kairouan devint capitale. [89], In addition to studies on the deepening of religious thought and Maliki jurisprudence, the mosque also hosted various courses in secular subjects such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine and botany. Other works of art such as the crowns of light (circular chandeliers) made in cast bronze, dating from the Fatimid-Zirid period (around the tenth to the early eleventh century), originally belonged to the furniture of the mosque. 45, n°1, pages 103 and 105, 2007, Okba Ibn Nafaa Mosque in Kairouan (Mosque of Uqba) website, Panoramic visit of the Great Mosque of Kairouan, Sacred Destinations : Great Mosque of Kairouan, Great Mosque of Kairouan (Qantara Mediterranean Heritage), Video of the mihrab of the Great Mosque of Kairouan,, 7th-century establishments in the Umayyad Caliphate, Articles with dead external links from June 2020, Articles with dead external links from September 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with dead external links from October 2017, Articles with dead external links from April 2019, Articles with dead external links from January 2020, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Enclosure and gates of the Mosque of Uqba, This page was last edited on 19 December 2020, at 10:21. [11] This location corresponded originally to the heart of the urban fabric of the city founded by Uqba ibn Nafi. Fig. J-C.), la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan (al-Jama’ al-kabîr) est le plus ancien lieu de culte de l’Occident musulman. ÿÿ ÿÿ ÿÿ l b b b b 2 æ$ æ$ æ$ æ$ 4 % | 2 V ¼ ¢% ´&. It is a cedar wood fence finely sculpted and carved on three sides with various geometric motifs measuring 2.8 metres tall, eight metres long and six metres wide. Situation: Kairouan en Tunisie (Maghreb) Dates de construction: début en 670, fin au IX° siècle Architecte : inconnu. Etude de cas : La Grande Mosquée de Damas. Ce fichier se présente sous la forme d’un jeu de piste : après avoir trouvé la définition du mot mosquée, et situé la ville de Kairouan, (à l’aide du manuel Hatier) les élèves commencent leur visite en passant la porte. Cour de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan 1 photographic print. [Georges Marçais] Home. The library window is marked by an elegant setting that has two columns flanking the opening, which is a horseshoe arch topped by six blind arches and crowned by a series of berms sawtooth.[86]. Fondée en même temps que la ville de Kairouan par les conquérants (ghuzât) musulmans, en l’an 50 de l’Hégire (670 ap. Their colorful multitude gives the eye the impression of unlimited". Search. Fondée en même temps que la ville de Kairouan par les conquérants (ghuzât) musulmans, en l’an 50 de l’Hégire (670 ap. Search. [66] This sumptuous door, which has four leaves richly carved with geometric motifs embossed on the bottom of foliages and interlacing stars, is decorated at the typanum by a stylised vase from which emerge winding stems and leaves. [48] It is located inside the enclosure and does not have direct access from the outside. The minaret served as a watchtower, as well as to call the faithful to prayer. Thus, some entries have been sealed, while others were kept. The rainwater collector or impluvium, probably the work of the Muradid Bey Mohamed Bey al-Mouradi (1686–1696), is an ingenious system that ensures the capture (with the slightly sloping surface of the courtyard) then filtering stormwater at a central basin furnished with horseshoe arches sculpted in white marble. [18] In 774, a new reconstruction accompanied by modifications and embellishments[19] took place under the direction of the Abbasid governor Yazid ibn Hatim. The crowns of light are marked by Byzantine influence to which the Kairouanese artisan brought the specificities of Islamic decorative repertoire (geometric and floral motifs). le portail de référence, vous allez découvrir un patrimoine culturel et historique impressionnant de la ville de Kairouan classée héritage mondial par l’Unesco et prix Agha Khan d’architecture.. Plus de 600 pages web 350 rubriques et près de 2.000 images ! Create lists, bibliographies and reviews: or Search WorldCat. [39] Despite its construction at the end of the thirteenth century, Bab Lalla Rihana blends well with all of the building mainly dating from the ninth century. This valuable collection, observed from the late nineteenth century by the French orientalists Octave Houdas and René Basset who mention in their report on their scientific mission in Tunisia published in the Journal of African correspondence in 1882, comprises according to the inventory established at the time of the Hafsids (circa 1293–1294) several Qur'ans and books of fiqh that concern mainly the Maliki fiqh and its sources. If one refers to the story of Al-Bakri, an Andalusian historian and geographer of the eleventh century, it is the mihrab which would be done by Uqba Ibn Nafi, the founder of Kairouan, whereas Lucien Golvin shares the view that it is not an old mihrab but hardly a begun construction which may serve to support marble panels and either goes back to work of Ziadet Allah I (817–838) or to those of Abul Ibrahim around the years 862–863. Grande Mosquée de Kairouan - J-A Brutails - Université Bordeaux Montaigne - 1692.jpg 3,140 × 4,509; 1.05 MB Kairouan Minaret (39733812671).jpg 1,024 × 768; 159 KB Vue aérienne de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan - aerial view of Kairouan's Great Mosque.jpg 1,700 × 949; 1.2 MB It is one of the oldest places of worship in the Islamic world, and is a model for all later mosques in the Maghreb. From the outside, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is a fortress-like building with its 1.90 metres thick massive ocher walls, a composite of well-worked stones with intervening courses of rubble stone and baked bricks. The height difference is compensated by the development of variable bases, capitals and crossbeams; a number of these crossbeams are in cedar wood. L’université zaytounienne et la société tunisienne, éditions Maison Tiers-Monde, Centre italien d’études du haut Moyen Âge, Lucien Golvin, « Le mihrab de Kairouan Â», Kunst des Orients, vol. [64], Enlightened by impressive chandeliers which are applied in countless small glass lamps,[65] the nave opens into the south portico of the courtyard by a monumental delicately carved wooden door, made in 1828 under the reign of the Husainids. Le plancher de la mosquée, à l’endroit où la … [52][57], View of the second and third storeys of the minaret, Close view of one of the Roman stones (with Latin inscriptions) reused at the base of the minaret, Wall and windows of the south facade of the minaret, The Mosque has several domes, the largest being over the mihrab and the entrance to the prayer hall from the courtyard. La Mosquée de Barb[er,] Kairouan Summary Courtyard of the Mosque of the Barber, Qayrawān, Tunisia. Des mots aux modes de spatialisation Â», Enceinte et porches de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, Hichem Djaït, « L’Afrique arabe au VIII, Fondation de la Grande Mosquée de Kairouan. TunisiaTourismTV – La Grande Mosquée de Kairouan, la première du Maghreb, a été fondée en 670 et reconstruite en 836. »[36], Today, the enclosure of the Great Mosque of Kairouan is pierced by nine gates (six opening on the courtyard, two opening on the prayer hall and a ninth allows access to the maqsura) some of them, such as Bab Al-Ma (gate of water) located on the western façade, are preceded by salient porches flanked by buttresses and surmounted by ribbed domes based on square tholobate which are porting squinches with three vaults.

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