The prospect of a Catholic monarch was vehemently opposed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (previously Baron Ashley and a member of the Cabal, which had fallen apart in 1673). Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Charles’s reign opened with a 10-year regency under the queen mother, during which the government was preoccupied with combatting the ambitions of the French king Louis XIV in … Although Charles and Parliament granted amnesty to nearly all of Cromwell's supporters in the Act of Indemnity and Oblivion, 50 people were specifically excluded. In defiance of the royal will, the House of Commons declared that the dissolution of Parliament did not interrupt impeachment proceedings, and that the pardon was therefore invalid. The lesson considers the measures taken by King Charles II in response to the plague and the reactions of some of the people to these restrictions, as well as providing contemporary comment on the situation. Louis made peace with the Triple Alliance, but he continued to maintain his aggressive intentions towards the Netherlands. Saive Numismatique, membre du Snennp, vente en ligne de monnaies anciennes de collection, or de bourse, livres de numismatique et fournitures pour numismates. Charles was incapable of thrift; he found it painful to refuse petitioners. The questions encourage pupils to investigate the sources and make their own judgements on the evidence where possible. Charles, a patron of the arts and sciences, founded the Royal Observatory and supported the Royal Society, a scientific group whose early members included Robert Hooke, Robert Boyle and Sir Isaac Newton. )", "Charles II, 1672: An Act for preventing Dangers which may happen from Popish Recusants", "Charles II, 1678: (Stat. The grant, however, proved to be insufficient for most of Charles's reign. The major foreign policy issue of his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. At the end of the civil war in 1649, Charles I was executed, technically making his son … Charles Scott, Earl of Doncaster (1672-1674) 3. James Scott, Earl of Dalkeith (1674-1705) 4. Charles II of England (1630-1685) 2. The crisis saw the birth of the pro-exclusion Whig and anti-exclusion Tory parties. [92] His arms as monarch were: Quarterly, I and IV Grandquarterly, Azure three fleurs-de-lis Or (for France) and Gules three lions passant guardant in pale Or (for England); II Or a lion rampant within a double tressure flory-counter-flory Gules (for Scotland); III Azure a harp Or stringed Argent (for Ireland). En septembre 1665, le taux officiel de mortalité atteignait même 7000 victimes par semaine, nombre considéré comme largement inférieur au taux réel. Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses. At around the same time, Anne Hyde, the daughter of the Lord Chancellor, Edward Hyde, revealed that she was pregnant by Charles's brother, James, whom she had secretly married. What emperor was known as the “Little Corporal? For doubts over his intention to convert before 1685 see, for example. In 1648, during the Second English Civil War, Charles moved to The Hague, where his sister Mary and his brother-in-law William II, Prince of Orange, seemed more likely to provide substantial aid to the royalist cause than his mother's French relations. Etat de conservation: B à TB /TB. [68] Protestant politicians such as the Earl of Essex, Algernon Sydney, Lord Russell and the Duke of Monmouth were implicated in the plot. The conflict began well for the English, with the capture of New Amsterdam (renamed New York in honour of Charles's brother James, Duke of York) and a victory at the Battle of Lowestoft, but in 1667 the Dutch launched a surprise attack on England (the Raid on the Medway) when they sailed up the River Thames to where a major part of the English fleet was docked. 4 patards 1698. Traditional celebrations involved the wearing of oak leaves but these have now died out. [f] The Second Dutch War ended with the signing of the Treaty of Breda. (Eds.). During the civil and military unrest that followed, George Monck, the Governor of Scotland, was concerned that the nation would descend into anarchy. His vigorous attempts to save London during the Great Fire of September 1666 could not make up for the negligence and maladministration that led to England’s naval defeat in June 1667. Charles II became King of Spain at the age of three, after his father died in 1665. In 1648 he made strenuous efforts to save his father; and when, after Charles I’s execution in 1649, he was proclaimed Charles II by the Scots in defiance of the English republic, he was prepared to go to Scotland and swallow the stringently anti-Catholic and anti-Anglican Presbyterian Covenant as the price for alliance. Numerous accounts of his adventures were published, particularly in the immediate aftermath of the Restoration. Protestant conspirators formulated the Rye House Plot, a plan to murder him and the Duke of York as they returned to London after horse races in Newmarket. Upon his arrival in Scotland on 23 June 1650, he formally agreed to the Covenant; his abandonment of Episcopal church governance, although winning him support in Scotland, left him unpopular in England. Inscrit le : 15-07-2012 Messages : 3077 . [88], Charles was universally beloved, beloved not only by the crowd of individuals with whom he came in contact, not only adored by his dependents, but thoroughly popular with the mass of his subjects and particularly with the poorer populace of London who knew him best.[89]. 1665 (4th March) Second Anglo-Dutch War The English used the Dutch opening fire on English warships as an excuse to declare war on the Dutch. Aussi, dès juillet 1665, le roi Charles II choisit de fuir Londres avec sa sœur. Charles was one of the most popular and beloved kings of England,[1] known as the Merry Monarch, in reference to both the liveliness and hedonism of his court and the general relief at the return to normality after over a decade of rule by Cromwell and the Puritans. [43] Catherine journeyed from Portugal to Portsmouth on 13–14 May 1662,[43] but was not visited by Charles there until 20 May. Sir Christopher Wren was commissioned to rebuild the cathedral. 4 Biographies. Charles II, the eldest surviving son of Charles I and Henrietta Maria of France, was born at St. James’s Palace, London. His parents were Charles I, who ruled the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Henrietta Maria, the sister of the French king Louis XIII. It sought to discourage non-conformity to the Church of England and passed several acts to secure Anglican dominance. Charles was baptised in the Chapel Royal, on 27 June, by the Anglican Bishop of London, William Laud. There would be pardons for nearly all his opponents except the regicides. Charles raised a ragtag army from his exiled subjects; this small, underpaid, poorly-equipped and ill-disciplined force formed the nucleus of the post-Restoration army. In: Harris, T., & Taylor, S. Their first son was born about a year before Charles, but died within a day. Charles died after a stroke in 1685 with the problem still unresolved. Charles was their second child. Charles II (1665-1700). His mother ruled as a regent for 10 years until Charles was a teenager. Professor Ronald Hutton summarises the polarised historiography: For the past hundred years, books on Charles II have been sharply divided into two categories. The King, Charles II and his Court left London and fled to Oxford. In fact, the Cabal rarely acted in concert, and the court was often divided between two factions led by Arlington and Buckingham, with Arlington the more successful. Test your knowledge of the history of leadership with this quiz. The young king became a fugitive, hunted through England for 40 days but protected by a handful of his loyal subjects until he escaped to France in October 1651. Monck and his army marched into the City of Lo… An exclusive body of Anglican clergy and a well-armed landed gentry were the principal beneficiaries of Charles II’s restoration. (2015). Charles II, byname The Merry Monarch, (born May 29, 1630, London—died February 6, 1685, London), king of Great Britain and Ireland (1660–85), who was restored to the throne after years of exile during the Puritan Commonwealth. Charles withdrew the Declaration, and also agreed to the Test Act, which not only required public officials to receive the sacrament under the forms prescribed by the Church of England,[57] but also later forced them to denounce transubstantiation and the Catholic Mass as "superstitious and idolatrous". Landing at Dover on May 25, he reached a rejoicing London on his 30th birthday. They appealed to King Charles II to confer the land in question to them, and in 1665 an amendment was made to the Charter of Carolina that stated the king was “graciously pleased to enlarge our said grant unto them.” The northern boundary was extended to what is … 4 Inquisition -- Spain -- Early works to 1800. 2.) [48], In 1668, England allied itself with Sweden, and with its former enemy the Netherlands, to oppose Louis XIV in the War of Devolution. Portugal had been helped by France, but in the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659 Portugal was abandoned by its French ally. Omissions? [2] Charles's heir presumptive was therefore his unpopular Catholic brother, James, Duke of York. In the same year, he openly supported Catholic France and started the Third Anglo-Dutch War.[56]. In 1670, he entered into the Treaty of Dover, an alliance with his cousin King Louis XIV of France. Mercuric poisoning can produce irreversible kidney damage; however, the case for this being a cause of his death is unproven. A merry monarch, scandalous and poor.[86]. English history by Dion Clayton Calthrop. In 1659, the Rump Parliament was recalled and Richard resigned. Charles's coat of arms as Prince of Wales was the royal arms (which he later inherited), differenced by a label of three points Argent. [19], After the death of Cromwell in 1658, Charles's initial chances of regaining the Crown seemed slim; Cromwell was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son, Richard. He was the personal patron of Sir Christopher Wren, the architect who helped rebuild London after the Great Fire and who constructed the Royal Hospital Chelsea, which Charles founded as a home for retired soldiers in 1682. Author of. [8] Her son, James Crofts (afterwards Duke of Monmouth and Duke of Buccleuch), was one of Charles's many illegitimate children who became prominent in British society.[2]. The next day the couple were married at Portsmouth in two ceremonies—a Catholic one conducted in secret, followed by a public Anglican service. Whose word no man relies on, [53] The Portuguese territories that Catherine brought with her as a dowry proved too expensive to maintain; Tangier was abandoned in 1684. Edited by Mary Anne Everett Green. Charles’s reign opened with a 10-year regency under the queen mother, during which the government was preoccupied with combatting the ambitions of the French king Louis XIV in … The English Parliament recognised Charles as king by unanimous vote on 2 May 1660, and he was proclaimed king in London on 8 May, although royalists had recognised him as such since the execution of his father on 30 January 1649. Découvrez et achetez L'Espagne de Charles II et la France : 1665 - 1700. [7], At The Hague, Charles had a brief affair with Lucy Walter, who later falsely claimed that they had secretly married. [21] The outgoing Parliament defined the electoral qualifications intending to bring about the return of a Presbyterian majority. The Corporation Act 1661 required municipal officeholders to swear allegiance;[32] the Act of Uniformity 1662 made the use of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer compulsory; the Conventicle Act 1664 prohibited religious assemblies of more than five people, except under the auspices of the Church of England; and the Five Mile Act 1665 prohibited expelled non-conforming clergymen from coming within five miles (8 km) of a parish from which they had been banished. Rev. CAROLVS II D G HISP NEAP REX Crowned coat of arms in Golden Fleece collar. Ventes futures; Ventes passées; Résultats; Visite de salle; Enchères à la une Enchères à la une. 4 Manuscripts, European. Charles's English parliament enacted laws known as the Clarendon Code, designed to shore up the position of the re-established Church of England. [63], The new English Parliament, which met in March of the same year, was quite hostile to Charles. Charles endeavoured to ensure that the Treaty—especially the conversion clause—remained secret. In 1665 Charles embarked upon the Second Anglo-Dutch war in the hope of taking control of major sea routes and ending the Dutch domination of world trade. [20] Monck and his army marched into the City of London, and forced the Rump Parliament to re-admit members of the Long Parliament who had been excluded in December 1648, during Pride's Purge. February 2nd, 1665 - New Amsterdam which has about 1500 inhabitants, is officially named New York, in honor of James, Duke of York, the brother of King Charles II February 6, 1665 - Officials of the Dutch West India Company require all the officers and settlers to take up arms against the English. Power passed to five politicians known collectively by a whimsical acronym as the Cabal—Clifford, Arlington, Buckingham, Ashley (afterwards Earl of Shaftesbury) and Lauderdale. Le siècle d'Or en sursis : le règne de Charles II d'Espagne, CARLOS II (1665-1700) - La defensa de la monarquía hispánica en el ocaso de una dinastía, Alain Begue, Belin Éducation. Looking back on Charles's reign, Tories tended to view it as a time of benevolent monarchy whereas Whigs perceived it as a terrible despotism. Le règne de Charles II (1665-1700) », et nous faisons figurer le lien pour accéder au texte définissant les … Restoration, Restoration of the monarchy in England in 1660. King Charles II 1660-1685 Restoration Stuart Costume. R/ Ecu couronné, soutenu par deux lions, entouré du collier de la Toison d''or. The Scottish army was routed by the English under Oliver Cromwell at Dunbar in September 1650, and in 1651 Charles’s invasion of England ended in defeat at Worcester. [22], The restrictions against royalist candidates and voters were widely ignored, and the elections resulted in a House of Commons that was fairly evenly divided on political grounds between Royalists and Parliamentarians and on religious grounds between Anglicans and Presbyterians. Despite his son's diplomatic efforts to save him, King Charles I was beheaded in January 1649, and England became a republic. Tranche cordée. Tout le monde savait alors que la ville était frappée par une épidémie de peste. The Abhorrers—those who thought the Exclusion Bill was abhorrent—were named Tories (after a term for dispossessed Irish Catholic bandits), while the Petitioners—those who supported a petitioning campaign in favour of the Exclusion Bill—were called Whigs (after a term for rebellious Scottish Presbyterians). Lord Danby and the surviving Catholic lords held in the Tower were released and the king's Catholic brother, James, acquired greater influence at court. LUXEMBOURG, Duché, Charles II (1665-1700), billon sou de Luxembourg, 1700, Anvers . The power of the Cabal waned and that of Clifford's replacement, Lord Danby, grew. Clyde L. Gros, "The Anglo-Portuguese Marriage of 1662". [59] In 1678, Titus Oates, who had been alternately an Anglican and Jesuit priest, falsely warned of a "Popish Plot" to assassinate the king, even accusing the queen of complicity. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. But George Monck, one of Cromwell’s leading generals, realized that under Cromwell’s successors the country was in danger of being torn apart and with his formidable army created the situation favourable to Charles’s restoration in 1660. EUROPE BELGIQUE - BRABANT Charles II (1665-1700) Deuxième type, à la grande couronne. 31 août 2013 - Cette épingle a été découverte par Holly West. [84] Diana, Princess of Wales, was descended from two of Charles's illegitimate sons: the Dukes of Grafton and Richmond. Updates? [51], Meanwhile, by a series of five charters, Charles granted the East India Company the rights to autonomous government of its territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops, to form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over its possessions in the Indies. [37] Charles, with his family and court, fled London in July to Salisbury; Parliament met in Oxford. Des milliers de livres avec la livraison chez vous en 1 jour ou en magasin avec -5% de réduction ou téléchargez la version eBook. This led to internal political struggle within his family over who would call the shots. [50] It remains unclear if Charles ever seriously intended to convert. Le petit Charles, alors qu’il accède au trône à l’âge de quatre ans, il est tout maigre, très faible avec disons-le des capacités intellectuelles et physiques très limitées. GM 20K-135C autres monnaies etrangeres chili. After the death of Cromwell in 1658, Charles's initial chances of regaining the Crown seemed slim; Cromwell was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son, Richard. As a patron of education, he founded a number of schools, including the Royal Mathematical School in London and The King's Hospital in Dublin, as well as the Erasmus Smith schools in various parts of Ireland. Charles II often suffered from ill health and much of his reign consisted of others ruling the country in his stead. Toggle facets Limit your search Subject. [75], On his deathbed Charles asked his brother, James, to look after his mistresses: "be well to Portsmouth, and let not poor Nelly starve". "[91] The claim to France was only nominal, and had been asserted by every English monarch since Edward III, regardless of the amount of French territory actually controlled. English; La maison; Nouveautés; À paraître; Collections; Revues His safety was comfortless, however. Menu. He was brought up in the care of the Protestant Countess of Dorset, though his godparents included his maternal uncle Louis XIII and his maternal grandmother, Marie de' Medici, the Dowager Queen of France, both of whom were Catholics. Silver 5.67 g Obv. Many of them were prosecuted and their estates seized, with Charles replacing judges and sheriffs at will and packing juries to achieve conviction. G.H. [28], The English Parliament granted him an annual income to run the government of £1.2 million,[29] generated largely from customs and excise duties. Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. Charles sided with the Tories, and, following the discovery of the Rye House Plot to murder Charles and James in 1683, some Whig leaders were executed or forced into exile. [74] In the days between his collapse and his death, Charles endured a variety of torturous treatments including bloodletting, purging and cupping in hopes of effecting a recovery. [85] John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, wrote more lewdly of Charles: Restless he rolls from whore to whore The Cavalier Parliament opposed the Declaration of Indulgence on constitutional grounds by claiming that the king had no right to arbitrarily suspend laws passed by Parliament. The Restoration was accompanied by social change. As a result of the Second Dutch War, Charles dismissed Lord Clarendon, whom he used as a scapegoat for the war. Charles himself soon came to despise the "villainy" and "hypocrisy" of the Covenanters. A more pervasive and damaging limitation was on his financial independence. 1662: Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe.

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