In 1528 Charles assigned a concession in Venezuela Province to Bartholomeus V. Welser, in compensation for his inability to repay debts owed. In 1557, Charles retired to the Monastery of Yuste in Extremadura and died there a year later. Charles was very attached to his homeland and spent much of his life in Brussels. [64] The regular Ottoman fleet came to dominate the Eastern Mediterranean after its victories at Preveza in 1538 and Djerba in 1560 (shortly after Charles's death), which severely decimated the Spanish marine arm. Joanna, in contrast, was only third in the Spanish line of succession, preceded by her older brother John of Castile and older sister Isabella of Aragon. Coat of arms of King Charles I of Spain before becoming emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. There, he began to work on his German translation of the bible. Indeed, Charles's motto, Plus Ultra (Further Beyond), became the national motto of Spain and his heir, later Philip II, was born and raised in Castile. Ultimately, Charles V conceded the Peace of Augsburg and abandoned his multi-national project with a series of abdications in 1556 that divided his hereditary and imperial domains between the Spanish Habsburgs headed by his son Philip II of Spain and the Austrian Habsburgs headed by his brother Ferdinand, who was Archduke of Austria in Charles's name since 1521 and the designated successor as emperor since 1531. [46] By contrast, in the crown of Aragon, and especially in the Pyrenean kingdom of Navarre, law prevailed, and the monarchy was seen as a contract with the people. Côme, avant d'être élu, se doit dans l'obligation de jurer au nom de la religion chrétienne: "Côme- Comment faut-il que je prononce ce serment ? Save up to 80% by choosing the eTextbook option for ISBN: 9781482892413, 1482892413. Histoire De La Reformation, Ou, Memoires De Jean Sleidan Sur L'état De La Réligion Et De La République Sous L'empire De Charles Quint... (French Edition) [Sleidanus, Johannes] on Amazon.com. Charles, therefore, claimed the crowns for himself jure matris, thus becoming co-monarch of Joanna with the title of Charles I of Castile and Aragon or Charles I of Spain. Charles Quint Et La Religion Page 2 sur 50 - Environ 500 essais Cours 3678 mots | 15 pages cousines paternelles, Marie Ire d'Angleterre (1516-1558), fille d'Henri VIII et reine d'Angleterre de 1553 à 1558, mais ce n'est … The nobles desired Charles's marriage to a princess of Castilian blood, and a marriage to Isabella would have secured an alliance between Castile and Portugal. As a consequence, cartographers and historians have described those kingdoms both as realms of Charles V and as possessions of Ferdinand, not without confusion. Charles allied with England and Pope Leo X against the French and the Venetians, and was highly successful, driving the French out of Milan and defeating and capturing Francis at the Battle of Pavia in 1525. Political dissent was also firmly controlled, most notably in his place of birth, where Charles, assisted by the Duke of Alba, personally suppressed the Revolt of Ghent in mid-February 1540.[32]. [98] Nonetheless, the same agreements promised Ferdinand the designation as future emperor and the transfer of hereditary rights over Austria at the imperial succession. Immediately after crushing the Castilian revolt, Charles was confronted again with the hot issue of Navarre when King Henry II attempted to reconquer the kingdom. Two rebellions, the revolt of the Germanies and the revolt of the comuneros, contested Charles's rule in the 1520s. Philip was secretly invested with Milan already in 1540 and again in 1546, but only in 1554 the Emperor made it public. This is a reproduction of a book published before 1923. Finally, when the Castilian regent Cardinal Jiménez de Cisneros accepted the fait accompli, he acceded to Charles's desire to be proclaimed king and imposed his enstatement throughout the kingdom. The Empress contracted a fever during the third month of her seventh pregnancy, which resulted in antenatal complications that caused her to miscarry a stillborn son. Histoire De La Reformation, Ou, Memoires De Jean Sleidan Sur L'état De La Réligion Et De La République Sous L'empire De Charles Quint… They gained a strong foothold in the Empire's territories, and Charles was determined not to let this happen in the Netherlands. He married a princess from Portugal, Catherine of Braganza. With no fanfare, in 1556 he finalized his abdications. Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1500 - 1558). At the same time, the Muslim Barbary corsairs, acting under the general authority and supervision of the sultan, regularly devastated the Spanish and Italian coasts, crippling Spanish trade and chipping at the foundations of Habsburg power. In 1545, the Council of Trent was finally opened and the Counter-Reformation began. The Turks conquered the Balkan Peninsula, declared war on Hungary and even went so far as to lay siege on Vienna in 1529. [6] The imperial wars were fought by German Landsknechte, Spanish tercios, Burgundian knights, and Italian condottieri. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. Joanna of Austria (1522–1530), daughter of a noble lady from Nassau. "[24] A variant of the quote is attributed to him by Swift in his 1726 Gulliver's Travels, but there are no contemporary accounts referencing the quotation (which has many other variants) and it is often attributed instead to Frederick the Great. Since the Imperial election, he was known as Emperor Charles V even outside of Germany and the A.E.I.O.U. Each country had a peculiar internal structure which gave rise to constitutional opposition to the ruler, and furthermore most of the countries had a tradition in foreign policy related to their specific interests and situation in Europe. Espinosa, Aurelio. The important city of Ghent rebelled in 1539 due to heavy tax payments demanded by Charles. We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. Therefore, although he had agreed on the future division of the dynasty between Ferdinand and Philip II of Spain, during his own reign Charles V conceived the existence of a single "House of Austria" of which he was the sole head. Following his victory in the Battle of Pavia, Charles abandoned the idea of an English alliance, cancelled his engagement to Mary and decided to marry Isabella and form an alliance with Portugal. In 1508 Charles was nominated by Henry VII to the Order of the Garter. On 16 January 1556, he gave Spain and the Spanish Empire in the Americas to Philip. [citation needed]. Charles the Fifth withdrew to the monastery of Yuste in Spain, where he died in 1558. First of all, he called Luther to the Diet of Worms in 1521; he was outlawed from the Empire but was given safe conduct to return to his home, as had previously been promised. According to scholars, Charles decided to abdicate for a variety of reasons: the religious division of Germany sanctioned in 1555; the state of Spanish finances, bankrupted with inflation by the time his reign ended; the revival of Italian Wars with attacks from Henri II of France; the never-ending advance of the Ottomans in the Mediterranean and central Europe; and his declining health, in particular attacks of gout such as the one that forced him to postpone an attempt to recapture the city of Metz where he was later defeated. And finally, the Archduchy of Austria in 1519 at the death of his paternal grandfather, the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian. Nabu Press, 2011-11-06. After his ascension to the Spanish thrones, negotiations for Charles's marriage began shortly after his arrival in Castile, with the Castilian nobles expressing their wishes for him to marry his first cousin Isabella of Portugal, the daughter of King Manuel I of Portugal and Charles's aunt Maria of Aragon. They returned to visit their son very rarely, and thus Charles grew up parentless in Mechelen together with his sisters Eleanora, Maria and Isabella at the Duchess's court. She retired in isolation into a tower of Tordesillas. Reformation: Europe's House Divided 1490–1700. Histoire De La Reformation Ou Mémoires De Jean Sleidan, Sur L'etat De La Religion Et De La République Sous L'empire De Charles Quint, Volume 3... (French Edition) by Johannes Sleidanus, Pierre François Le Courayer (Creator). ", Josefina Cintrón Tiryakian et al. [25][26], Given the vast dominions of the House of Habsburg, Charles was often on the road and needed deputies to govern his realms for the times he was absent from his territories. Charles V was forced to flee the city during an attack of gout and barely made it alive to Villach in a state of semi-consciousness carried in a litter. On 21 December 1507, Charles was betrothed to 11-year-old Mary, the daughter of King Henry VII of England and younger sister to the future King Henry VIII of England, who was to take the throne in two years. Histoire de la Reformation, ou, Memoires de Jean Sleidan sur l'état de la réligion et de la république sous l'empire de Charles Quint - Ebook written by Johannes Sleidanus. First, the Duchy of Burgundy, together with its possessions in Flanders at the death of his father in 1506. Then, the kingdoms of Castile, Aragon, Naples and Sicily at the death of his maternal grandfather Ferdinand V in 1516. The Catholic initiative was supported by a number of the princes of the Holy Roman Empire. The Spanish inheritance, resulting from a dynastic union of the crowns of Castile and Aragon, included Spain as well as the Castilian West Indies and the Aragonese Two Sicilies. First, the Duchy of Burgundy, together with its possessions in Flanders at the death of his father in 1506, 2. They were married that very same night in a quiet ceremony in the Hall of Ambassadors, just after midnight. ", Bruce Ware Allen, "Emperor vs. Pirate Tunis, 1535. Charles is a cold and intelligent man who strongly holds views such as social Darwinism, believing that only the strongest are worthy of rising in society. [43] In the end Charles was accepted under the following conditions: he would learn to speak Castilian; he would not appoint foreigners; he was prohibited from taking precious metals from Castile beyond the Quinto Real; and he would respect the rights of his mother, Queen Joanna. ", Francisco C. Ceballos, and G. Álvarez, "Royal dynasties as human inbreeding laboratories: the Habsburgs.". The Seventeen Provinces had been unified by Charles's Burgundian ancestors, but nominally were fiefs of either France or the Holy Roman Empire. It excluded Burgundy proper, annexed by France in 1477, with the exception of Franche-Comté. [100] In the abdications of 1554–1556, Charles left his personal possessions to Philip II and the Imperial title to Ferdinand. The powerful influence of the Reformation Movement was felt especially during Charles’ reign as Emperor. But I deliberately did no wrong to anyone, whoever it was. She soon found herself at war with France over Charles's requirement to pay homage to the French king for Flanders, as his father had done. Born in 1500, ruled the majority of Europe, Much of Charles's reign was taken up by conflicts with France, which found itself encircled by Charles's empire while it still maintained ambitions in Italy. [41] Charles arrived in his new kingdoms in autumn of 1517. He outlawed Luther and issued the Edict of Worms, declaring: You know that I am a descendant of the Most Christian Emperors of the great German people, of the Catholic Kings of Spain, of the Archdukes of Austria, and of the Dukes of Burgundy. Still, this demand fell on deaf ears, and the Parliament kept piling up grievances. As he was head of the rising House of Habsburg during the first half of the 16th century, his dominions in Europe included the Holy Roman Empire, extending from Germany to northern Italy with direct rule over the Austrian hereditary lands and the Burgundian Low Countries, and a unified Spain with its southern Italian kingdoms of Naples, Sicily, and Sardinia. Generations are numbered by male-line descent from the first archdukes. Charles the Fifth inherited a vast empire; although he saw himself as a defender of Catholicism, he was unable to prevent the spread of the Reformation Movement in the Holy Roman Empire. The culture and courtly life of the Low Countries played an important part in the development of Charles's beliefs. In addition, Habsburg trade in the Mediterranean was consistently disrupted by the Ottoman Empire. Upon the abdications of Naples and Sicily, Philip was invested by Pope Julius III with the kingdom of Naples on 2 October and with the Kingdom of Sicily on 18 November.[84]. The most famous—and only public—abdication took place a year later, on 25 October 1555, when Charles announced to the States General of the Netherlands, reunited in the great hall of the palace where he was emancipated exactly forty years earlier, his abdication in favour of his son of those territories and his intention to step down from all of his positions and retire to a monastery. The concession, known as Klein-Venedig (little Venice), was revoked in 1546. Before ascending the throne he was known as the Dauphin and was regent for his father, Charles VI, from [77] Charles kept these paintings with him whenever he travelled, and they were among those that he brought with him after his retirement to the Monastery of Yuste in 1557. Charles's full titulature went as follows: Charles, by the grace of God, Emperor of the Romans, forever August, King of Germany, King of Italy, King of all Spains, of Castile, Aragon, León, of Hungary, of Dalmatia, of Croatia, Navarra, Grenada, Toledo, Valencia, Galicia, Majorca, Sevilla, Cordova, Murcia, Jaén, Algarves, Algeciras, Gibraltar, the Canary Islands, King of Two Sicilies, of Sardinia, Corsica, King of Jerusalem, King of the Indies, of the Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea, Archduke of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, Brabant, Lorraine, Styria, Carinthia, Carniola, Limburg, Luxembourg, Gelderland, Neopatria, Württemberg, Landgrave of Alsace, Prince of Swabia, Asturia and Catalonia, Count of Flanders, Habsburg, Tyrol, Gorizia, Barcelona, Artois, Burgundy Palatine, Hainaut, Holland, Seeland, Ferrette, Kyburg, Namur, Roussillon, Cerdagne, Drenthe, Zutphen, Margrave of the Holy Roman Empire, Burgau, Oristano and Gociano, Lord of Frisia, the Wendish March, Pordenone, Biscay, Molin, Salins, Tripoli and Mechelen. In the Castilian Cortes of Valladolid in 1506 and of Madrid in 1510, Charles was sworn as the Prince of Asturias, heir-apparent to his mother the Queen Joanna. This deformity may have been caused by the family's long history of inbreeding, the consequence of repeated marriages between close family members, as commonly practiced in royal families of that era to maintain dynastic control of territory. As Holy Roman Emperor, Charles was sovereign in several states of northern Italy and had a claim to the Iron Crown (obtained in 1530). Shelbyville, KY, is where Charles Quint lives today. [70] Therefore, Charles V outlawed the Schmalkaldic League and opened hostilities against it in 1546. Religion: Protestant: Charles I of England (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649), was the monarch of the three kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. As he was a minor, his aunt Margaret of Austria (born as Archduchess of Austria and in both her marriages as the Dowager Princess of Asturias and Dowager Duchess of Savoy) acted as regent, as appointed by Emperor Maximilian until 1515. As an Austrian prince, Charles inherited the continuous struggle against the Turks in Hungary and the Balkans. After this, Charles departed to the crown of Aragon. He for his part had seized an immense empire, but not without bloodshed nor was it destined to endure...you were born to a splendid empire...you owe it to heaven that your empire came to you without the shedding of blood, and no one suffered for it. Later, in 1547, Charles signed a humiliating[65] treaty with the Ottomans to gain himself some respite from the huge expenses of their war. In 1504, as Isabella passed away, Joanna became Queen of Castile. "Charles V and the Turks". [93] Following his return to Spain in 1559, their son Philip undertook the task of fulfilling his father's wish when he founded the Monastery of San Lorenzo de El Escorial. Charles's baptism gifts were a sword and a helmet, objects of Burgundian chivalric tradition representing, respectively, the instrument of war and the symbol of peace. Charles maintains relationships with many people -- family, friends, associates, & neighbors -- including Charles Quint, Angela Evans, Brenda Quint, Ernest Quint and Robert Garrett. In the Treaty of Cambrai (1529), called the "Ladies' Peace" because it was negotiated between Charles's aunt and Francis' mother, Francis renounced his claims in Italy but retained control of Burgundy. Despite the conquest of Nice by a Franco-Ottoman fleet, the French could not advance toward Milan, while a joint Anglo-Imperial invasion of northern France, led by Charles himself, won some successes but was ultimately abandoned, leading to another peace and restoration of the status quo ante bellum in 1544. As emperor, he … Charles V accumulated a large number of titles due to his vast inheritance of Burgundian, Spanish, and Austrian realms. After Luther defended the Ninety-five Theses and his writings, the Emperor commented: "that monk will never make me a heretic". After the Monastery's Royal Crypt was completed in 1574, the bodies of Charles and Isabella were relocated and re-interred into a small vault in directly underneath the altar of the Royal Chapel, in accordance with Charles's wishes to be buried "half-body under the altar and half-body under the priest's feet" side by side with Isabella. The princes in the north of Germany who had been won over by the Reformation set up the Schmalkaldic League in 1531 with, at its head, Philip of Hesse, an ally of Francis I of France. The marriage was originally a political arrangement, but on their first meeting, the couple fell deeply in love: Isabella captivated the Emperor with her beauty and charm. Paperback. On Charles's accession to the Spanish thrones, the Parliament of Navarre (Cortes) required him to attend the coronation ceremony (to become Charles IV of Navarre). Elite elements in Spain called for more protection for the commercial networks, which were threatened by the Ottoman Empire. [78], In 1540, Charles paid tribute to Isabella's memory when he commissioned the Flemish composer Thomas Crecquillon to compose new music as a memorial to her. Charles V is credited with the first idea of constructing an American Isthmus canal in Panama as early as 1520. A ramp was specially constructed to allow him easy access to his rooms. Others, such as the Venetian envoys, reported that the states of Ferdinand were "all held in common with the Emperor".[99]. He had been brought up by his mother, who was Roman Catholic, while most people in the country were Protestant. He was the most powerful man in Europe during his reign. of Aragon", "Rhétorique de la perte. p. 216. After his forces left the Papal States, Charles V defended Vienna from the Turks and obtained the coronation as King in Italy by Pope Clement VII. Imperial-Papal troops succeeded in re-installing the Sforza in Milan in 1521, in the context of an alliance between Charles V and Pope Leo X. The refusal of the Lutheran Schmalkaldic League to recognize the council's validity led to a war, won by Charles V with the imprisonment of the Protestant princes. For the opera, see. Charles was accepted as sovereign, even though the Spanish felt uneasy with the Imperial style. Pavia alone held out, and on 24 February 1525 (Charles's twenty-fifth birthday), Charles's forces led by Charles de Lannoy captured Francis and crushed his army in the Battle of Pavia. Castile had become an authoritarian, highly centralized kingdom, where the monarchs own will easily overrode legislative and justice institutions. On 26 October 1520 he was crowned in Germany and some ten years later, on 22 February 1530, he was crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Clement VII in Bologna, the last emperor to receive a papal coronation. Crowned King in Germany, Charles sided with Pope Leo X and declared Martin Luther an outlaw at the Diet of Worms (1521). [85], He concluded the speech by mentioning his voyages: ten to the Low Countries, nine to Germany, seven to Spain, seven to Italy, four to France, two to England, and two to North Africa. In 1535, Francesco II Sforza died without heirs and Charles V annexed the territory as a vacant Imperial state with the help of Massimiliano Stampa, one of the most influential courtiers of the late Duke. However, Charles's Imperial abdication marked the beginning of Ferdinand's suo jure rule in Austria and his other lands: despite the claims of Philip and his descendants, Hungary and Bohemia were left under the nominal and substantial rule of Ferdinand and his successors. Protestant museums and historical societies, Martin Luther and the Lutheran Reformation, The Huguenot history association of Ardèche, The role played by protestant women in society from the XVIth to the XIXth centuries, 16th century translations of the Bible into Latin and French, Charles the Fifth and the protestant princes, Charles the Fifth and the Reformation in his own territories. ", Paula Sutter Fichtner, "When Brothers Agree: Bohemia, The Habsburgs, and the Schmalkaldic Wars, 1546-1547. [11], Charles of Habsburg was born on 24 February 1500 in the Prinsenhof of Ghent, a Flemish city of the Burgundian Low Countries, to Philip of Habsburg and Joanna of Trastámara. As the conquistador Bernal Díaz del Castillo observed, "We came to serve God and his Majesty, to give light to those in darkness, and also to acquire that wealth which most men covet. The spread of Lutheranism led to two major revolts: that of the knights in 1522–1523 and that of the peasants led by Thomas Muntzer in 1524–1525. In Edwards v. Aguillard (1987), for instance, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that a Louisiana law requiring public school students to learn both evolution and creation science violated the U.S. Constitution’s prohibition on the establishment of religion. Mar 28, 2017 - Explore banboo 王's board "Charles Quint" on Pinterest. The titles of King of Hungary, of Dalmatia, Croatia, etc., were also nominally left to the Spanish line (in particular to Don Carlos, Prince of Asturias and son of Philip II). He further spent 195 days in France, 99 in North Africa and 44 days in England. Nonetheless, Charles V kept his word and left Martin Luther free to leave the city. Main military operations lasted until 1524, when Hondarribia surrendered to Charles's forces, but frequent cross-border clashes in the western Pyrenees only stopped in 1528 (Treaties of Madrid and Cambrai). "Tests confirm old emperor's gout diagnosis." The defeat of Hungary at the Battle of Mohács in 1526 "sent a wave of terror over Europe. The first war with Charles's great nemesis Francis I of France began in 1521. Summary: Charles Quint is 31 years old and was born on 01/30/1989. At the Augsburg Interim in 1548, he created a solution giving certain allowances to Protestants until the Council of Trent would restore unity. He later added an acceptable Castilian Spanish, which he was required to learn by the Castilian Cortes Generales. Charles also agreed to favor the election of Ferdinand as King of the Romans in Germany, which took place in 1531. He abdicated his empire and divided his lands between his brother and … She next married Antoine de Bourbon, and both she and their son would oppose Philip II in the French Wars of Religion. I had great hopes – only a few have been fulfilled, and only a few remain to me: and at the cost of what effort! "[51] Charles used the Spanish feudal system as a model for labor relations in the new colonies. Paperback. 1562), daughter of Orsolina della Penna. The first came at Augsburg itself following the public presentation of the confessions. However, the palace was not completed during their lifetimes and remained roofless until the late 20th century.[74]. For only 260 days, his exact location is unrecorded, all of them being days spent at sea travelling between his dominions. Get this from a library! The Protestant affair re-emerged in 1527 as Rome was sacked by an army of Charles's mutinous soldiers, largely of Lutheran faith. Charles Schulz was widely applauded for a long list of achievements. A truce at Nice in 1538 on the basis of uti possidetis ended the war but lasted only a short time. [8][27], Charles V made ten trips to the Low Countries, nine to German-speaking lands, seven to Spain, seven to Italian states, four to France, two to England, and two to North Africa. The standstill required the Protestants to continue to take part in the Imperial wars against the Turks and the French, and postponed religious affairs until an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church was called by the Pope to solve the issue. Several German princes or noblemen accompanied him in his military campaigns against France or the Ottomans, and the bulk of his army was generally composed of German troops, especially the Imperial Landsknechte. Formal disputes between the two lines over Hungary and Bohemia will be solved with the Onate treaty of 1617. After these events, Navarre remained a matter of domestic and international litigation still for a century (a French dynastic claim to the throne did not end until the July Revolution in 1830). Kiesel Verlag, Salzburg 1981, co-monarch of Spain with his mother Joanna, personal union between Spain and Portugal, Coat of arms of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, Sancho Alfonso, 1st Count of Alburquerque, Diego Fernández de Córdoba y Carrillo, first Lord of Baena, The Education of a christian prince, Erasmus of Rotterdam, Estudio documental de la moneda castellana de Carlos I fabricada en los Países Bajos (1517); José María de Francisco Olmos, Estudio documental de la moneda castellana de Juana la Loca fabricada en los Países Bajos (1505–1506); José María de Francisco Olmos, "Cortes de los antiguos reinos de León y de Castilla", "Details of horrific first voyages in transatlantic slave trade revealed", "Royal Collection – The Knights of the Garter under Henry VIII", "Life Span of Suleiman The Magnificent, 1494–1566", "Théâtre de tous les peuples et nations de la terre avec leurs habits et ornemens divers, tant anciens que modernes, diligemment depeints au naturel par Luc Dheere peintre et sculpteur Gantois[manuscript]", "Henry VIII: June 1518, 1–15 Pages 1302–1311 Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, Henry VIII, Volume 2, 1515–1518. You, noble prince Charles, are more blessed than Alexander the Great. Nabu Press, 2011-11-07. Aurelio Espinosa, "The grand strategy of Charles V (1500-1558): Castile, war, and dynastic priority in the Mediterranean. Histoire De La Réformation Ou Mémoires Sur L'état De La Religion Et De La République Sous L'empire De Charles-quint, Volume 3...: Amazon.es: Sleidanus, Johannes: Libros en idiomas extranjeros A third war erupted in 1536. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. [58] His Garter stall plate survives in Saint George's Chapel. 4 August 2006, Nation. France then joined the League of Cognac that Pope Clement VII had formed with Henry VIII of England, the Venetians, the Florentines, and the Milanese to resist imperial domination of Italy. [40] Nevertheless, the Flemings wished Charles to assume the royal title,[citation needed] and this was supported by his grandfather the emperor Maximilian I and Pope Leo X. Married with Sinibaldo di Copeschi. With each of his crowns Charles inherited enormous problems. – ca. Therefore, it is by virtue of the Worms agreement that Ferdinand became Holy Roman Emperor and obtained hereditary rights over Austria at the abdication of Charles in 1556. Up until that point (since at least 1510), African slaves had usually been transported to Castile or Portugal and had then been transhipped to the Caribbean.